Webinar on “Sewage Treatment Plant (Johkasou) in water management and Pollution Abatement”

Indian Buildings Congress on 20th July 2020 at 3.30pm organized a webinar on “Sewage Treatment Plant (Johkasou) in Water Management and Pollution Abatement”. Shri Pradeep Mittal, President , IBC in his introductory speech welcomed Shri O.P.Goel Founder President, IBC; Shri Rio Waza, Director, Daiki-Axis; Shri Kamal Tiwari, Chief Operating Officer, Daiki-Axis; Shri K.C.Pandey, Advisor, Diaki-Axis India Pvt. Ltd; Shri H.P.Gupta, Honorary Secretary, IBC; All viewers and audiences who joined the webinar. The President, briefed about the vision and role of IBC in promotion of Built environment. He emphasized the necessity and importance of sewage treatment in water management and to contain water pollution.

The President, IBC in his address informed that with the advancement of the country towards a more developed economy, there has been a adverse impact on the environment and particularly on basic elements of life i.e. air and water which are the major causalities.

With both the population of India and its industrial landscape increasing at a phenomenal speed, wastewater volume is also rising at an alarming pace. Adding to this is the shrinking of freshwater sources like rivers, wells, and groundwater and we have an alarming situation. There is a great degree of fear that very soon water may become a premium commodity.

Contaminated water pollutes the rivers.  When this water runs downstream and joins other water sources like other rivers, the contamination further spreads. Wastewater also seeps into the ground and contaminates underground water sources. The result is that almost every water source is today heavily polluted — from rivers and wells to coastal areas.

This would be disastrous. Water is too important for us and therefore treatment of the water should get utter most seriousness.  Drinking water is essential for all humans. Water is vital for livestock, the food industry, and farming. To a small extent, nature can deal with naturally produced contaminants like human and animal waste. However, the massive amount of wastewater today cannot be managed by nature alone.

Management of wastewater through waste water treatment plants or sewage treatment plants   has therefore become an urgent necessity of our cities today. Since the process of reducing contaminants will take decades of dedicated effort in normal course, the better solution would be to manage the wastewater. Fortunately, technology can help us here.  STP is one of the technology being adopted worldwide for biological treatment of grey and sewage water so as to make it recyclable to be used for irrigation, flushing, washing cars etc. This treated water can further be treated to make it fit for human consumption, construction purpose, industries and air conditioning.

Shri O.P.Goel, Founder President, IBC and former DG(W), CPWD, in his address briefed about journey of IBC since its inception. He informed IBC was started with a view to bring all professionals and stake holders connected with building industry  on a common platform connected with the built environment so as to form collective opinion related to built environment for implementation. He lauded the role of IBC in its contribution towards promotion of built environment which is sustainable, less costly, affordable, energy efficient. He further mentioned that Zero emission of water from building has been made possible in buildings constructed by CPWD by way of treatment of waste water for reuse and thus water has been generated. He expressed that he was looking forward for the presentation to see how effective and successful the technology was. He expressed his gratitude to the President, IBC for allowing him to share his views. In the present day scenario of Pandemic of COVID-19, where holding of physical seminar in conventional system is practically not feasible, he appreciated the concept of holding webinars where one can join from any place without taking any trouble to travel to the venue of Seminar.

Shri K.C.Pandey, Advisor, Daiki-Axis India Pvt. Ltd., while welcoming all the dignitaries and attendees present in the webinar, in his address highlighted the importance of water. He informed that in near  future water will be a very big issue for our country. India has only 4% of world water resources where as it supports 18% of the world population.  Monsoon has reduced to 35 to 40 days only in a year and the country meets 80% of its water demand from Rivers. Though there is enough water but we are not able to manage it. Recently there have been floods in Uttrakhand, Bihar, Assam and other states and this flood water flows into sea through rivers. We are able to retain only 13% of flood water. Depleting of water is posing a major challenge. Lack of sewage treatment is another problem. Huge water demand can be met in urban areas as well as in rural areas by treating and recycling the waste water. Therefore provision of waste water treatment is essential to reduce the demand on natural water resources. IIT Chennai in one of its study has found out that 10% investment in sewage and waste water treatment will save 80% of water. On agriculture front in irrigation we use huge quantity of water. India uses 5600 litres of water to grow 1 kg of Rice whereas China uses 350 litres of water for growing 1Kg of Rice. There has been huge impact of climate change on environment and there is no vaccine for climate change. Since we have created the shortage we have to find out the solution and the best solution is use of technology by way of treatment of waste water, recycling and reuse.

Shri Rio Waza, Director, Daiki-Axis India Pvt. Ltd., gave a detailed technical presentation. He highlighted that in Johkasou-STP Aerobic & Anaerobic microorganism grow-up on PP media and treat organic matter into air & water.  Thus it takes advantage of both aerobic and anaerobic processes in their packaged unit. In the process micro-organisms breakdown into aerobic micro-organisms like CO2 +H2O that require oxygen and Anaerobic micro-organisms  such as NH3, H2S, CO2 & CH4 that do not require oxygen. In this process wastewater is comprehensively treated and then discharged. Through Anaerobic chamber and Aerobic chamber, continuous ‘Nitrification’ and Denitrification’ is important point in their process. The process of installing and commissioning of the pre-fabricated modular packaged unit is very fast.  Decentralised STP installation is recommended by them so that the waste water can be treated at site and reused at site itself without involving huge network of sewerage lines. It can treat mixed waste water from kitchen, wash basin, bathtub, washing machine & toilets together.  The treated water can be utilised for gardening, vehicle wash (DTC/ Buses in Bus depot/Metro/Railways), fire fighting, construction sites. In India it has already installed and commissioned 120 units across the country which is performing well. In India, the Jhokasou has set up its factory at Vapi (Gujrat) under make in India programme.

The Johkasou –unit consists of 4 chambers. In the first chamber there is a separation box which separate solid debris or impurities in influent, circulates water and store these sediments, accumulated sludge in 1st chamber is removed by sucking machine periodically (once in 6-12 months)

2nd chamber which is anaerobic contact media chamber is the place where microorganism is growing up in media to decompose organic material contained in waste water. It filtrates and removes suspended solids in the transferred waste water, decompose organic matter, an aerobically. Nitric acid (Nitrate)  is turned into nitrogen gas (Denitrification).

3rd chamber which is Aeration chamber/ moving bed chamber  is filled with moving bed media that move by blower aeration. 40-50% of this chamber is filled up with moving bed media. Activity of microorganisms attached to the special moving bed reduces BOD aerobically. NH4-N       NOX-N.

4th chamber is a 2nd Sedimentation and disinfectant chamber. Treated water is disinfected here for which chlorine device is attached in this chamber. Disinfectant act as a sterilisation agent for pathogenic organisms in the treated water before it is discharged into the environment.

This unit has a most important function of recirculation system for retreatment of the accumulated sludge and nitrified liquid from 4th chamber to 1st chamber which further  go on to 2nd and 3rd chamber. The accumulated sludge and the nitrified water from 4th chamber is lifted by air lift pump/ small blower air.

The Johkasou-STP consumes low energy (50-75% less than conventional STP), works automatically-does not need operator, quickly maintainable- takes about 15 to 30 minutes for sucking sedimented sludge., treats nitrogen, does not leak/smell, sound, does not require equilisation tank, low sludge generation (50% less than conventional) and quick and easy to install (plug and play).

The Johkasou STP has 3 models AI-Type (outflow), AIJ-type outflow & AIM-type outflow. Depending upon the type of installation, the  performance of different parameters of inflow i.e. BOD gets reduced from 300 upto 5, COD from 450 upto 10, Suspended solid from 240 upto 5, oil and grease from 80 upto 5 and Total Nitrate from 50 upto 10. The operation and maintenance of the Jhokasou STP is much economical than conventional STP with SBR (RC), MBBR(RC) and MBR(RC), technologies.

The packaged units are capsule type for 1 to 25KLD and Cylindrical type from 20 to 50Kld having working life of 40-50 years. In places requiring large quantity of waste water treatment, multiple units are joined together.

Shri Kamal Tiwari, Chief Operating Officer in India of Daiki-Axis India Pvt. Ltd., in his address referred to the 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) also known as Global goals which were adopted by  all United Nations Member States in 2015 as a universal call to end poverty, protect the planet and ensure that all people enjoy peace and prosperity by 2030. Good health and well being besides clean water and sanitation Goals are among these 17 goals to be achieved. India is also a signatory to the adoption of these goals. By referring  to the 17 SDGs and other schemes of the Government like ‘Har Ghar Nal by 2024’, Swachh Bharat, Double Framer’s income by 2024 and Make in India a 5 Trillion economy’ he mentioned that water is at the core of all issues.  To achieve the most effective formula of reduce, recycle of waste water and reuse , the Johkasou-STP being modular unit can follow speed of development, can be installed block by block, very low operation cost. The system can ensure water security, meets the local policies and compliance requirement of CPCB & NGT, economical and sustainable. He informed that local treatment and reuse of domestic waste water is the most efficient water management technique in Indian context in achieving the water and sanitation goal. Depending upon the source of waste water it has different type of Johakasou packages like Hotel, residences, garden, school, hospital and factory packages. The treatment units can be installed under car park or garden or it can also be above ground. He also presented many case studies.

Shri H.P.Gupta, Honorary Secretary, IBC presented vote of thanks. He thanked the President IBC for taking pains in successful organising of webinar. He thanked Shri O.P.Goel, Founder President, IBC for sparing his valuable time to guide and bless the organisers of the webinar. He thanked the Panellists for their valuable and informative presentation. He thanked all attendees of the webinar for sparing their time to attend the webinar and to make it successful.